[\quote]“Marriage may be contracted in accordance with law by two persons without distinction as to their sex.”[/quote]
One of the arguments against this is that same-sex marraige cannot give children the same advantages as heterosexual marriage (e.g. this add). Going through the Iona institute (which is anti-same-sex marriage) they quote a number of different studies which show that there is no difference between homosexual parents and heterosexual parents
(from here (pdf)):
Judith Stacey to the US Courts wrote: Specifically, the research demonstrates that children of same-sex couples are as motionally
healthy and socially adjusted and at least as educationally and socially successful as children raised by heterosexual parents.
Professor Michael Wald on assesing the claim that it is better for children to be raised
by twoopposite-sex married parents wrote:“[T]he evidence does not support these claims.”
In 1995, the American Psychological Association (APA) issued a statement indicating that, based upon the available scientific data, children raised by lesbian and gay parents are not “disadvantaged in any significant respect relative to the children of heterosexual parents.” American Psychological Association, Lesbian and Gay Parenting: A Resource for Psychologists (1995) (available at http://www.apa.org/pi/parent.html).
Academy of Pediatrics wrote:That the weight of evidence gathered during several decades using diverse samples and methodologies is persuasive in demonstrating that there is no systematic difference between gay and nongay parents in emotional health, parenting skills, and attitudes towards parenting
However, the institute also claim that:
Stephen Nock on reviewing hundreds of studies wrote:Through this analysis I draw my onclusions that 1) all of the articles I reviewed contained at least one fatal flaw of design or execution; and 2) not a single one of those studies was conducted according to general accepted standards of scientific research
The Iona Institute wrote:Design flaws researchers have found in these studies include very basic limitations:
a. No nationally representative sample. Even scholars enthusiastic about unisex parenting, such as Stacey and Biblarz, acknowledge that “there are no studies of child development based on random, representative samples of [same-sex couple] families.”
b. Limited outcome measures. Many of the outcomes measured by the research are unrelated to standard measures of child well-being used by family sociologists (perhaps because most of the researchers are developmental psychologists, not sociologists).
c. Reliance on maternal reports. Many studies rely on a mother’s report of her parenting skills and abilities, rather than objective measures of child outcomes.
d. No long-term studies. All of the studies conducted to date focus on static or short-term measures of child development. Few or none follow children of unisex parents to adulthood.
But perhaps the most serious methodological critique of these studies, at least with reference to the family structure debate, is this: The vast majority of these studies compare single lesbian mothers to single heterosexual mothers. As sociologist Charlotte Patterson, leading researcher on gay and lesbian parenting, recently summed up, “[M]ost studies have compared children in divorced lesbian mother-headed families with children in divorced heterosexual mother-headed families.”
Most of the gay parenting literature thus compares children in some fatherless families to children in other fatherless family forms. The results may be relevant for some legal policy debates (such as custody disputes) but, in our opinion, they are not designed to shed light on family structure per se, and cannot credibly be used to contradict the current weight of social science: family structure matters, and the family structure that is most protective a child well-being is the intact, married biological family.
Children do best when raised by their own married mother and father.
As I am not a psychologist, I was hoping that the people here would know more about the subject. I guess the questions that I would like answered are the following:
1) Are the objections that are used to discredit the studies that have been done on people reared in same-sex partnerships as opposed to heterosexual partners valid?
2) Are there more studies which have focused on the effect of the sexuality of the parent as opposed to the effect of the family structure?
3) Are children harmed in any way, however small, by having homosexual parents? If so, can you provide proof?